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Gamefowl Diseases and Treatment (Sabong Guide) (Sabong Arena)

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Online Sabong Maintenance
Genre Sabong Arena
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Article ID 00000370
Aspergillosis (Brooder Pneumonia) Aspergillosis has been observed in almost all birds and animals, including man. The disease is observed in one of two forms; acute outbreaks with high morbidity and high mortality in young birds, and a chronic condition affecting adult birds. It is more of a problem in turkeys than in chickens. The condition is caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, a mold or fungus-type organism. Occasionally other types of molds are involved. These organisms are present in the environment of all poultry. They grow readily on many substances such as litter, feed, rotten wood and other similar materials. The bird comes in contact with the organisms through contaminated feed, litter or premises. The disease is not contagious and does not spread from one bird to another. Most healthy birds can withstand repeated exposure to these organisms. Inhalation of large amounts of the infectious form of the mold or reduced resistance of the bird apparently results in infection. In adult turkeys, the disease more often affects the male. In the acute form in young birds, main symptoms are gasping, sleepiness, loss of appetite and sometimes convulsions and death. Occasionally the organism invades the brain, causing paralysis or other forms of nervous symptoms. The more chronic form in older birds usually results in loss of appetite, gasping or coughing and a rapid loss of body weight. Mortality is usually low and only a few birds are affected at one time. The disease produces hard nodular areas in the lungs and an infection of the air sacs. Sometimes the air sac lesions are similar to those produced by infectious sinusitis or CRD. In some birds, colonies of mold growth can be seen on the air sac membranes. Diagnosis is usually made from history, symptoms and lesions. It may be necessary to base diagnosis on microscopic lesions. The disease can usually be prevented by avoiding moldy litter, feed or premises. There is no treatment for the affected flock. Cleaning and disinfecting the equipment is often helpful. Avian Influenza (Virus) Mild form: Decline egg production - Mild respiratory disorder - Sneezing- coughing - Low mortality Systemic form: Chronic respiratory infection - Sinuses filled with cheese (like plugs) - Drowsiness, swelling of heads - High mortality Serological test only means of proper diagnosis - Prevent through vaccination - Vaccination not successful because of the many stereotypes and short immunities - Management best prevention - De-population best control. Blackhead (Protozoan) Sulfur colored droppings - Enlarged ceca with cheese-like core - Large saucer- shaped lesions on the liver - 50% mortality after 15 days Rotate range and keep different ages of bird separate - dimetridayole is an effective treatment. Botulism A disease caused by the ingestion of a toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium. All domestic fowl and most wild birds are susceptible to the toxin's effects. Many human deaths have also been attributed to the consumption of food or water containing the toxin. Botulism is not a bacterial infection, but a condition produced by a byproduct of the bacteria's growth. The organism is common in nature and is widely dispersed in soils. Ingestion of the organism is not harmful. It becomes dangerous only when conditions are favorable for its growth and subsequent toxin formation. The organism grows best under high humidity and relatively high temperature and in an environment containing decaying organic material (plant or animal). The organism requires an environment in which all atmospheric oxygen is eliminated. The organism cannot multiply in the presence of air. Stagnant pools or damp areas with buried decaying matter are danger areas for toxin development. Botulism results after the decaying animal or plant material containing the toxin is consumed. Decaying carcasses are a frequent source of the toxin, as are many insects feeding in the same tissue. The insects may contain enough toxin to cause the disease in any bird that ingests it. Since the toxin is water soluble, water sources may become contaminated and provide a reservoir for the disease. The toxin is one of the most potent discovered by scientists. The toxin is relatively heat stable but may be destroyed by boiling. There are different types of the toxin; types A and C cause the disease in birds while type B frequently produces the disease in man. Weakness is generally the first sign of the illness and is followed by progressive flaccid paralysis of the legs, wings and neck. When neck muscles are affected the head hangs limp, thus causing a condition referred to as "limber neck". Affected birds may have a peculiar trembling, loose feathers that are pulled out easily and dull partly closed eyes. Some birds (turkey) do not develop loose feathers or limber neck symptoms. Because of the paralysis, birds are unable to swallow and mucous accumulates in the mouth. Fatally affected birds may lie in a profound coma appearing lifeless for several hours before death. Significant lesions are not usually observed in affected birds. Examining digestive contents may reveal insects, decomposed animal or vegetable material or other matter suggesting that the birds have consumed the toxin. A tentative diagnosis can be made from the history, symptoms and post-mortem findings. As an aid to diagnosis, sick birds may be given water into the crop, kept in a cool environment and treated intravenously with antitoxin. Recovery of a large percentage of the affected birds would substantiate diagnosis. Prevention should be aimed at eliminating sources of toxin production and preventing access of birds to such materials. These practices include prompt removal of all dead animals from houses and pens, debeaking the birds, controlling fly and insect populations and avoiding access to decaying organic material. Contaminated water supplies are particularly dangerous. If the disease strikes, locate and remove the source of the toxin and separate all visibly affected birds from the flock for treatment. Place sick birds in a cool shaded area and give fresh water into the crop, twice daily. Mild laxatives may be used for birds that have been exposed but do not show disease symptoms. Epsom salts (one pound per 100 birds) may be mixed into feed. Adding a level teaspoonful of Epsom salts in one ounce of water and placing in the crops of sick birds has been beneficial in many instances. Antitoxin therapy is indicated only in birds that have high individual value since the antitoxin is difficult to obtain and is expensive. Bronchitis Infectious bronchitis is an extremely contagious respiratory disease of chickens characterized by coughing, sneezing and rales (rattling). It is caused by a virus that affects chickens only. Other fowl or laboratory animals cannot be infected with this virus. Several distinct strains of the virus exist. Infectious bronchitis is considered the most contagious of poultry diseases. When it occurs, all susceptible birds on the premises become infected, regardless of sanitary or quarantine precautions. The disease can spread through the air and can "jump" considerable distances during an active outbreak. It can also be spread by mechanical means such as on clothing, poultry crates and equipment. The disease is not egg transmitted and the virus will survive for probably no more than one week in the house when poultry are not present. It is easily destroyed by heat and ordinary disinfectants. The infection is confined to the respiratory system. Symptoms are difficult breathing, gasping, sneezing and rales. Some birds may have a slight watery nasal discharge. The disease never causes nervous symptoms. It prevails for ten to fourteen days in a flock and symptoms lasting longer than this are from some other cause. In chickens under three weeks of age, mortality may be as high as thirty or forty percent. The disease does not cause a significant mortality in birds over five weeks of age. Feed consumption decreases sharply and growth is retarded. When infectious bronchitis occurs in a laying flock, production usually drops to near zero with a few days. Four weeks or more may be required before the flock returns to production. Some flocks never regain an economical rate of lay. During an outbreak, small, soft-shelled, irregular-shaped eggs are produced. Infectious bronchitis is difficult to differentiate from many of the other respiratory diseases. For this reason, a definite diagnosis usually requires a laboratory analysis. Infectious bronchitis is highly contagious and does not always respect sanitary barriers. Vaccinate chickens being retained as layers. Whether broilers should be vaccinated depends upon many factors and is an individual decision. Numerous vaccines are available commercially. Most of them represent a modified or selected strain of the infectious bronchitis virus. The vaccine used should contain virus known to be present in the area. All vaccines contain live virus and those that give the best protection are also capable of producing symptoms and reducing egg production. The vaccine virus will spread to other susceptible birds. Vaccine is usually added to the drinking water, but may be dropped into the eye or nostril or used as a spray. There is no treatment for this disease. In young chickens it is helpful to increase the brooder temperature and provide as nearly ideal environmental conditions as possible. BUMBLEFOOT Is caused for birds dropping to the hard ground from roost. is a bacteria know as staphylococcus. The ball of the foot and area around toes will be swollen and full of pus. it will cause birds to be lame. use a good antibiotic like penicillin . 1/2 cc in swollen area. you may have to cut open the swollen area and squeeze the pus out. Use a good triple antibiotic on abscess keep bird in a small pen with no roost and lots of soft litter. CANKER Is caused by unhealthy unsanitary conditions. moldy feed and litter, stagnated water, it is a protozoan parasite. the bird will have a nasty smelling drool and watery eyes. will not eat. there will be white sores outside and inside mouth also down the throat. It is not a very good idea to to scrape the canker it just releases the germ. 1/4 teaspoon of copper sulfate in water for 7 days . CHOLERA Is transmitted threw the egg. wont show up until the biddies are at least 6 weeks old or older. It can be spreader threw the drinking water and droppings. their droppings will be green-yellow or white in color their faces will be hot to the touch they will drinking lost of water and not eating they will lose weight and become lame. they will have a hard time breathing or a rattle their heads can turn blue from lack of oxygen .. cut one of the dead birds open to see if his liver has grayish white spots on it.. there may be hemorrhages in the lungs. give 1 cc or la200 in the breast morning and night for 5 days. Squirt 2 cc or penicillin down there throats for 3 days. For rest of the chickens use 1 teaspoon of tetracycline to 1 gallon of water for 7 days ... Coccidiosis Is an important disease of young birds in every season, wherever poultry are raised. There are several kinds of coccidia that infect poultry and they each act as a separate disease. Coccidiosis is a disease of the intestinal tract with cecal or bloody coccidiosis being the most common form in small poultry flocks. In diagnosing coccidiosis it is important to confirm that coccidia are present, but not to identify the species. All coccidial species are responsive to the same treatment--a coccidiostat or sulfa drug. Coccidiosis occurs anytime after birds reach 2 1/2 weeks of age or following moves from one house to another. The symptoms are varied, but the droppings may range from pure blood to watery consistency and the birds become unthrifty, have ruffled feathers and soiled vent feathers and are lethargic. A few sick or freshly dead birds should be necropsied to confirm the diagnosis. Colibacillosis (Coliform infections) Problems attributed to coliform infections are often caused by strains of the Escherichia coli organism. There is a marked variation in severity. Problems range from severe acute infections with sudden and high mortality to mild infections of a chronic nature with low morbidity and mortality. Infections may result in a respiratory disease from air sac infection, a septicemic (blood) disease from generalized infections, an enteritis from intestinal infection or a combination of any or all of these conditions. The disease may result from a coliform infection alone as in primary infection or in combination with other disease agents as a complicating or secondary infection. Secondary infections commonly occur as a part of the classic air sac disease syndrome as a complication with Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections. All ages can be affected; however, the acute septicemia in young turkeys and airsacculitis in young chickens is more common in young growing birds. High, early mortality may occur as the result of navel infections. The symptoms of this disease is caused by the E. coli bacteria and the toxins produced as they grow and multiply. There are many different strains or serological types within the group of E. coli bacteria. Many are normal inhabitants in intestinal tracts of chickens and turkeys and consequently are common organisms in the birds' environment. A marked variation exists between different strains in their ability to cause disease. Some are severe and by themselves can cause disease while others are supposedly harmless. All degrees of pathogenicity exist between the two extremes. The primary routes of invasion by the organism are the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract. Omphalitis and infections in young birds may result from entry through the unhealed navel or penetration of the egg shell prior to or during incubation. The symptoms vary with the different types of infections. In the acute septicemic form, mortality may begin suddenly and progress rapidly. Morbidity may not be apparent and birds in apparently good condition may die. However, in most cases birds are listless with ruffled feathers and indications of fever. Additional symptoms of labored breathing, occasional coughing and rales may be apparent. Diarrhea may be evident. Mortality may be high in recently hatched chicks and poults as a result of navel infection of coliforms. Extremely acute septicemic infection may result in sudden death with very few, if any, lesions apparent. Common lesions include dehydration, swelling and congestion of the liver and spleen and kidneys and pinpoint hemorrhages in the viscera. Fibrinous to caseous exudate in the air sacs, heart sac and on the surface of the heart, liver and lungs is a characteristic lesion. The intestines may be thickened and inflamed and may contain excess mucus and areas of hemorrhage. Navel infections, similar to those described for omphalitis may be seen in young birds. Diagnosis by laboratory means is necessary since coliform infection in its various forms may resemble and be easily confused with many other diseases. Isolation and identification of the organism by culture procedures can be accomplished relatively quickly; however, mere isolation is not sufficient to make a diagnosis. One must take into consideration the organ from which the organisms were isolated, the pathogenicity of the particular isolate and the presence of other disease agents. Management and sanitation practices designed to reduce the number of these types of organisms in the birds' environment are necessary. In addition, reducing stress factors and other disease agents can enhance the ability of birds to defend against harmful infections. Providing adequate ventilation, good litter and range conditions, properly cleaned and disinfected equipment and facilities and high quality feed and water will improve the disease resisting status of the birds. The poultryman must always avoid overcrowding, environmental stresses like chilling or overheating and avoid vaccination or handling stress during periods when the birds are already subjected to stressful conditions. Proper egg handling, good hatchery management and implementing a good sanitation program is necessary to reduce early exposure of chicks or poults to disease organisms. It is always emphasized that problems due to one of the more pathogenic strains may occur even under ideal conditions. The response of coliform infections to various medications is erratic and often difficult to evaluate. Under practical conditions, treatment is often disappointing. Drug sensitivity varies with the strain of E. coli causing the condition. Laboratory tests to determine the sensitivity to the various drugs are useful to select the most beneficial drugs. When practical, moving birds to a clean environment may be of more value than medication. For example, when outbreaks occur in growing turkeys in the brooder house, moving to range is often the best treatment. CORYZA Is a fast spreading respiratory disease. symptoms are, sneezing, running nose, note nostrils will clog causing a nasty smell. that is you first warning you have Coryza. sometimes the head and eyes will swell. there may even be a rattle in the throat. treatment is Sodium Sulfamethazine. 1 tablespoon for each gallon of water for a week to two weeks. note: birds that have been infected could be carriers. Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) is a complex respiratory disease whose root cause is an infection by Mycoplasma Gallisepticum (MG). The MG infection is almost always accompanied with another infection whether, bacterial or viral. The MG infection can be controlled thru medications and vaccinations, however once a bird is infected there is no cure. The secondary infections can be cured thru medication in the case of bacteria or thru the birds immune system, in the case of viral infection. Therefore, as there is no cure for MG the respiratory infections will re-occur with every new bacterial or viral respiratory infection. To add to this complex problem, stress whether it be from a severe change in the weather, poor management, working the bird or whatever, makes the bird more prone to an outbreak. The signs and symptoms are varied, depending on how severe the infection is, the general health of the bird, what secondary infections are present and how much stress the bird is under. A squeaky crow along with respiratory rattles are usually the first signs. Bubbles in the eyes are very characteristic which can be followed by nasal discharge. Birds, when worked, will be short winded, have very little energy and will become blue headed if the disease is severe. In severe infections the bird will have a fever and will develop diarrhea or the greens and will lose weight. MG is spread by many means. It is passed thru the egg from one generation to the next. The disease can be carried thru the air for short distances, be carried by wild birds and animals, be transmitted by direct contact or by sharing feed and water cups, and very importantly, by yourself on hands, clothing, or shoes. Tylan is the drug of choice and will control the disease very well. Tylan can be given by injection or thru the drinking water. LS-50, Spectam, Gallimycin and Tetracycline are also effective. There are live and killed vaccines for the control of MG. The use of live vaccines are controlled in some states and there reactions are sometimes very strong, making live vaccines a second choice to killed vaccines. Killed vaccines offer long term control with very little risk. Also these killed products are now available in combination with Newcastle and Bronchitis, making the 3-way vaccine a broad protection product. MG which is the cause of CRD, is a problem which must be and can be kept under control. Everyone should know if he is infected so he can control the problem or if he is clean so he can work to stay that way. The only sure way to know your status is by blood testing your birds. Curling of the feathers Is caused by a lack of protein a feather is 85% protein Proteins make up a large portion of the blood, muscles, organs, skin, tendons, bone , nail and feathers. Proteins constitute about 1/5 the weight of the living chicken and about 1/8 of the weight of the whole egg. protein comes from animals and plants. the best source of protein would be from animals because it contains amino acids and vit B-12 which a chicken needs. dog food, cat food, fish oil, butter milk, whole milk, bone meal by adding one of these you can bring your protein level up. oats are only 9-11% protein they have no amino acids. lack of protein and amino acids will cause tongue to turn black or curl up, feathers to dry ,break or curl up. if you live in a cold area where you need to soak feed for the moisture soak some dog food in water or milk . Encephalomalacia crazy chick disease vit E deficiency Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro) Infectious bursal disease is an acute, highly contagious viral disease of young chickens. It is most often found in highly concentrated poultry producing areas. It causes marked morbidity and mortality in affected flocks. Although the disease causes severe losses, its affect on reducing the bird's ability to develop immunity to other diseases may be the most serious effect produced by this disease. The transmission or spread of the disease can occur by direct contact (bird to bird), contaminated litter and feces, caretaker, contaminated air, equipment, feed, servicemen and possible insects and wild birds. It is extremely contagious. Birds have ruffled feathers, a slight tremor at onset of the disease, strained defecation, loss of appetite and are dehydrated. Affected birds have a tendency to sit and when forced to move, have an unsteady gait. Vent picking is common and a whitish diarrhea frequently develops. A sudden rise in body temperature is followed by a drop to subnormal temperature, prostration and death. Birds surviving the initial infection will recover rapidly within two weeks. Postmortem lesions include dehydration and changes in the bursa, skeletal muscle, liver and kidneys. All affected birds have bursal changes characterized by swelling, change in shape (oblong), color (pink, yellow, red, black) and the formation of a gelatinous film around the bursa. Within a few days the bursa shrinks to half its normal size or smaller. Diagnosis of infectious bursal disease is based on flock history and postmortem lesions. Laboratory procedures may be used to substantiate the diagnosis. Vaccines are available but must be carefully used. If given correctly, good immunity can be developed. There is no specific treatment for infectious bursal disease and indiscriminate medication with certain drugs may severely aggravate mortality. Supportive measures such as increasing heat, ventilation and water consumption are beneficial. Enteritis one of the number 1 causes of Enteritis or the greens is a change in feed . Also change is weather - heat or rain . symptoms: greenish diarrhea , crop bound Dehydration is a problem because birds can become crop bound . 1 cc of LA 200 In breast muscle and 1 cc down throat morning and evening for 4 days or triple sulfa powder 1 teaspoon in a gallon of water for 6 days. treat for crop bound if needed. Erysipelas Is a bacterial disease caused by Erysipelothrix insidiosa. The disease affects several species of birds including chickens, ducks and geese, but the fowl in which it has been of primary importance is the turkey. Man is susceptible to infection and may contract the disease from infected turkeys. Since this organism is pathogenic for man, care should be taken when handling infected birds or tissues. Erysipelas in turkeys occurs most often during the fall and winter months and usually affects birds that are four to seven months of age, although any age bird is susceptible. Incidence has often been reported to be higher in males than in females, possibly because fighting males receive numerous skin abrasions that serve as portals of entry for the bacteria. In some instances the incidence is higher in hens than toms because of artificial insemination techniques that provide a means of transmission. The organism may survive for long periods in the soil and most outbreaks are thought to originate from contaminated soil or premises. Sheep, swine and rodents may be carriers of the disease organisms. Recurrence of the disease on a premise is common. Predisposing or aggravating factors include over-crowding damp or inclement weather and poor sanitation and range management. The first indication of the disease may be the discovery of several dead birds. Usually several morbid birds can be found; however, most affected birds are visibly sick for only a short period before death. Symptoms are typical of a septicemia disease and include a general weakness, listlessness, lack of appetite and sometimes a yellowish or greenish diarrhea. Occasionally, the snood of toms may be turgid, swollen and purple. Some birds may be found lame with swollen leg joints due to localization of the infection. In breeding flocks, this disease occasionally is associated with decreased fertility and hatchability. Daily morbidity and mortality usually are low; however, in untreated flocks mortality may persist for some time and become excessive. The most characteristic lesions are small or diffuse hemorrhages located in almost any tissue or organ. Such hemorrhages are commonly observed in the muscles, heart, liver, spleen, fat and other tissues of the body cavities. Hemorrhagic conditions of skin may result in purple blotches. The liver and spleen are usually enlarged, congested and occasionally contain necrotic foci. Enteritis or inflammation of the intestinal tract is commonly observed, as in most septicemic diseases. Symptoms and lesions may resemble other diseases so closely that a reliable diagnosis can be made only through isolation and identification of the causative organism. Good management practices that aid in preventing erysipelas include avoiding the use of ranges previously occupied by swine, sheep or turkeys where erysipelas is known to have existed. Debeaking, removal of the snoods of toms, measures that prevent injury from fighting, avoiding overcrowding and providing well drained ranges will aid in preventing this disease problem.Bacterins are available and are useful on premises where history indicates that outbreaks may be a problem. The amount and duration of protection is relative to the amount of exposure and may not be sufficient for the entire laying period. Administer bacterins in accordance with the manufacturer's directions. Move sick birds to a hospital pen for individual treatment and to prevent cannibalism. Moving unaffected birds to a clean range may aid in preventing the spread of the disease but may also contaminate an additional range. Various antibiotics have shown efficacy in treating erysipelas; however, penicillin is best. Penicillin injections in the leg or breast muscles of visibly sick birds is effective in decreasing mortality. One injection is usually sufficient, but more may be given if necessary. Water and feed medication may be of value under certain conditions. Protein: any of numerous naturally occurring extremely complex substances that consist of amino-acid residues joined by peptide bonds, contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, usu. sulfur, and occas. other elements (as phosphorus or iron), and include many essential biological compounds (as enzymes, hormones, or immunoglobulins) FAVUS Is a parasite fungus called Trichophyton Gallinae it can be transmitted to humans. Make sure you wear gloves when handling sick fowl .Can spread to whole flock ,birds can become weak and lose weight if it is not gotten under control . Mange medicine for dogs will work also Athletes Foot cream. Laryngo-tracheitis (Virus) Coughing, sneezing, difficult breathing - depressed - stretches neck when inhaling (causing sound as they breathe) - occasional facial swelling - medium to high mortality Lesions: bloody mucus in the trachea - cheesy plug at the upper tracea, usually causing death (get lab diagnosis) Vaccination is only treatment - Quarantine LIMBERNECK { botulism} Caused by eating rotten feed maggot containing the boulism toxins, signs will show up in few hours .. first signs nervousness birds get weak, sleepy. loss of appetite, difficulty swallowing, progressive paralysis of the legs, wings and neck, chickens may lay on ground with neck stretched out unable to left there heads. the feathers will be loose and easily pull out. mix one tablespoon of Epsom salts to 1/2 cup of water . pour as much as you can down the throat, two times a day for 2 or 3 days. if they condition is untreated the fowl will die. MAREK`S DISEASE Other wise know as range paralysis is caused by a virus there is no cure .it is none to be a herpes virus but there is also 6 other viruses that cause marek`s disease .. causing weight loss, the bird will lay on its side will have a nervous twitch prior to death. the virus is from turkeys but they do not get the virus they just harbor it. so when you are vaccinating your are injecting the turkey virus into the chicken but it is not a infectious virus because the turkey blocks the virus from entering the cells of the chicken. you got to make sure that you get the turkey vaccine in the chickens system before the marek`s virus does. if you vaccinate when chicks are are older and the marek`s virus is already in them the vaccine will do no good and the chicken will come down with the disease. that is why it is recommended that you vaccinate at one day old...most chickens will not show any symptoms until they are 6 or 9 months old. the vaccine comes in two vials one is a powder and the other liquid mix the two together with a syringe and needle give your chicks a shot under the skin 1/4 cc. the injection is for under the skin back or neck, breast or leg just lift up the skin and put the needle beneath it... remember that the vaccine has to be kept in there refrigerator ...if you don't need all the vaccine just mix up 1/4 of the powder and 1/4 of the liquid put the unmixed back in the refrigerator. once mixed it will last up to 2 hours. NEWCASTLE Disease Newcastle disease is a contagious viral infection causing a respiratory nervous disorder in several species of fowl including chickens and turkeys. Different types or strains of the virus (varying in their ability to cause nervous disorder, visceral lesions and death) have been recognized. The most severe strain is called viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease (VVND) and is kept from birds in the U.S. by enforcement of strict quarantines at our national borders. It is often referred to as "Exotic Newcastle Disease" and infection of susceptible fowl with this form usually causes high mortality. Due to the reduced chance that poultry in this country will become infected with this disease form, it will not be discussed. A milder form of the disease is called "mesogenic" Newcastle disease and is the most serious strain found in the U.S. This is the form that is referred to as Newcastle disease in this discussion. Newcastle disease is highly contagious. All birds in a flock usually become infected within three to four days. The virus can be transmitted by contaminated equipment, shoes, clothing and free-flying birds. During the active respiratory stage, it can be transmitted through the air. The virus is not thought to travel any great distance by this method. Recovered birds are not considered carriers and the virus usually does not live longer than thirty days on the premises. Signs of Newcastle disease are not greatly different from those of other respiratory diseases. The signs most frequently observed are nasal discharge, excessive mucous in the trachea, cloudy air sacs, casts or plugs in the air passages of the lungs and cloudiness in the cornea of the eye. The disease in young chickens begins with difficult breathing, gasping and sneezing. This phase continues for ten to fourteen days and may be followed by nervous symptoms. If nervous disorders develop, they may consist of paralysis of one or both wings and legs or a twisting of the head and neck. The head often is drawn over the back or down between the legs. Mortality may vary from none to total loss of the flock. In adult chickens, respiratory symptoms predominate. Only rarely do nervous disorders develop. If the flock is laying, egg production usually drops rapidly. When this occurs, it takes four weeks or longer for the flock to return to the former production rate. During the outbreak, small, soft-shelled, off-colored and irregular-shaped eggs are produced. Mortality in adult birds is usually low but may be fairly high from some virus strains. In turkeys, the symptoms are usually mild and may be unnoticed unless nervous disorders develop. During an outbreak, turkeys will produce eggs with a chalky white shell. Reduced production in breeder flocks is the main economic loss from this disease in turkeys. The flock history, signs of a respiratory nervous disorder and other typical lesions often may be sufficient to allow a tentative diagnosis. Usually, however, the disease cannot be differentiated from infectious bronchitis and some of the other respiratory infections, except by laboratory methods. Vaccination is practiced widely and is the recommended method for prevention. Several types of vaccines are available but the most successful and widely used is the mild live virus vaccine known as the B1 and La Sota types. The vaccines may be used by drops into the nostril or eye, addition to the drinking water or applied in spray form. Broiler chickens are usually vaccinated when seven to ten days of age. Chickens kept for egg production are usually vaccinated at least three times. The vaccine is given when birds are approximately seven days, again at about four weeks and a third time at about four months of age. Revaccination while in lay is commonly practiced. Vaccination is not widely used in turkeys. It is used to protect egg producing breeder flocks. One dose of the mild type vaccine is given after selecting breeder birds. There is no treatment for Newcastle disease. The disease does not always respect even the best management programs, but good "biosecurity" practices will help reduce the possibility of exposure to Newcastle disease virus. OMPHALITIS May be defined technically as an inflammation of the navel. As commonly used, the term refers to improper closure of the navel with subsequent bacterial infection (navel ill; mushy chick disease). Apparently, most problems result from mixed bacterial infections including the common coliforms and various species belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Proteus, and others. Omphalitis can usually be traced to faulty incubation, poor hatchery sanitation or chilling/overheating soon after hatching (such as in transit). The significance of isolating one of the bacterial species mentioned above is complicated in that many of the same species can be isolated from the yolks of supposedly normal birds immediately after hatching. Omphalitis occurs during the first few days of life, so it cannot be considered transmissible from bird to bird. It is transmitted from unsanitary equipment in the hatchery to newly hatched birds having unhealed navels. Affected chicks usually appear drowsy or droopy with the down being "puffed up". They also generally appear to be of inferior quality and show a lack of uniformity. Many individuals stand near the heat source and are indifferent to feed or water. Diarrhea sometimes occurs. Mortality usually begins within 24 hours and peaks by five to seven days. Characteristic lesions are poorly healed navels, subcutaneous edema, bluish color of the abdominal muscles around the navel and unabsorbed yolk material that often has a putrid odor. Often yolks are ruptured and peritonitis is common. A tentative diagnosis can be made on the basis of history and lesions. The presence of mixed bacterial infections and absence of any specific disease-producing agent is used for confirming the diagnosis. Good management and sanitation procedures in the hatchery and during the first few days following hatching are the only sure ways to prevent omphalitis. Broad spectrum antibiotics help reduce mortality. PASTEURELLA A germ causing young fowl to become stilt legged. it also can cause Bitotin deficiency. run sulfqinoxaline in water for 3 days skip 2 and run 3 more days. POX { wet and dry} First of all biddies should be vaccinated when they are 1 day old. Then again when they are 12 weeks old. But if you can't do that.. You should get the chicken/chickens with the virus away from everything else on the yard. You should immediately vaccinate all fowl that does not show signs of the virus. You should Run Antibiotics and Vitamins in water to keep secondary infections from showing up. Pox is an air born virus but can only be caught from an open wound. It is spread by mosquitoes and other biting bugs. The virus must inter threw an open cut. Never trim stags while you have pox on your yard. It takes 3 - 4 weeks for the virus to run its course. Once the birds has had the virus it will be immune. There is no cure for Pox. There is two forms of Pox wet and dry. Dry pox will show scabbed bumps on waddles, head, comb, and sometimes even the legs. Wet pox will show wart like sores on head, waddles, comb, legs, vent, throat, eyes. The sore inside the mouth will look like cankers and also show coryza like symptoms with the nasty smell. This can cause chickens not to be able to breath and die.. Sores on eye's can cause chickens to become blind also. PULLORUM disease Is an acute or chronic infectious, bacterial disease affecting primarily chickens and turkeys, but most domestic and wild fowl can be infected. The cause is a bacterium named Salmonella pullorum. This organism is primarily egg transmitted, but transmission may occur by other means such as: Infected hen to egg, egg to chick, or chick to chick in incubator, chick box, brooder, or house. Survivors become infected breeders (cycle begins again), Mechanical transmission (carried around on clothes, shoes or equipment), Carrier birds (apparently healthy birds shed the disease organisms), Contaminated premises (from previous outbreaks). Disease organisms may enter the bird through the respiratory (as in the incubator) or digestive systems. Most outbreaks of acute pullorum disease in chickens or turkeys result from infection while in the hatchery. Pullorum disease is highly fatal to young chicks or poults, but mature birds are more resistant. Young birds may die soon after hatching without exhibiting any observable signs. Most acute outbreaks occur in birds that are under three weeks of age. Mortality in such outbreaks may approach ninety percent if untreated. Survivors are usually stunted and unthrifty. Infection in young birds may be indicated by droopiness, ruffled feathers, a chilled appearance with birds huddling near a source of heat, labored breathing, and presence of a white diarrhea with a "pasted-down" appearance around the vent. The white diarrhea symptom instigated the term "bacillary white diarrhea" that was commonly associated with this disease at one time. Gross lesions may be lacking in some adult birds. Diagnosis in young birds is made by isolating the causative organism in the laboratory. In older birds, blood testing may indicate an infection but a positive diagnosis depends upon isolation and identification of the organism by laboratory procedures. Complete eradication is the only sound way to prevent pullorum disease. All hatchery supply flocks should be tested and only pullorum-free flocks used as a source of hatching eggs. Purchase chicks or poults from hatcheries that are officially recognized as "Pullorum Clean" by National Poultry Improvement Plan representatives in your state. Treatment primarily is a salvage operation and does not prevent birds from becoming carriers. Consequently, do not keep recovered flocks for egg production. Among the drugs used to treat pullorum disease are furazolidone, gentamycin sulfate, and sulfa drugs (sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamerazine). VENT GLEET A disease causing swelling in the vent area it is caused by thrush fungus and accompanied by a bacterial infection. 1 cc of LA 2000 in the breast and 1 cc and LA2000 down the throat for 5 days

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